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types of hate speech
apology letter Kurd homophobia insult usage of an identity as an insult Hostility/ War Discourse Distortion / Insult distortion Jew finger-pointing,insulting,enmity insult/humiliation ayrımcılık finger-pointing hostility xenophobia simgeleştirme
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  methodology  
  Approximately 1000 local newspapers and all national newspapers are watched through a media monitoring company based on pre-determined key words (such as collaborator, Turcophobe, separatist etc.).

While the main focus has been on hate speech based on ethnicity and religious identity, we also included sexist and homophobic discourse in our media watch project. The media watch project has employed the critical discourse analysis method as well as some other associated techniques, which are the general method of choice in media studies. In line with the characteristics of the cases studied, textual and iconographic (photographs, pictures and other illustrations) analyses were carried out. With a view to designate specific indicators for the content and discourse of the news, a quantitative scaling has been used in the first place, followed by the exposure of the various elements such as where (on which pages) and how the hateful content is covered, which sources have produced it and which individuals/groups are targeted.

In the identification of news and columns which include hate speech based on definition of the Recommendation adopted by Council of Europe in 1997. Within this Recommendation hate speech is defined as the following way: “For the purposes of the application of these principles, the term "hate speech" shall be understood as covering all forms of expression which spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance, including: intolerance expressed by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism, discrimination and hostility against minorities, migrants and people of immigrant origin.”

Afterwards, the news articles and columns containing hate speech elements - previously identified in accordance with the purpose and scope specified above - have been categorized in line with the characteristics of the discourse being used. In referral to previously conducted international scientific studies and in consideration of the country-specific lingual and cultural differences, the following hate categories have been identified:

1) Exaggeration / Attribution / Distortion: Any discourse that features the elements of negative generalization, distortion, exaggeration or negative attribution targeting a community or a person based on a specific incident is considered under this category.

2) Blasphemy / Insult / Degradation: Any discourse that contains direct swearing, insult or denigration (e.g. use of words such as treacherous, dog, mud-blood etc.) falls under this category.

3) Enmity / War Discourse: Any discourse that includes hostile, war-mongering expressions about a community is classified under this category.

4) Use of Inherent Identity as an element of Hate or Humiliation / Symbolization: This category has been created for discourses that use various aspects of one’s inherent identity as an element of hate, humiliation or symbolization. (For instance, the negative implications of the phrases such as “your mother is Armenian anyway.” or “is your surname Davutoğlu or Davutyan?”)

Unlike other periods of the study, since 2013, case studies, which investigated discourse constructed in a more sophisticated way and gave more subtle messages of discrimination was included. Accordingly, for each four month period, a discriminatory discourse analysis is also prepared by focusing on a current subject and by determining a specific methodology for each subject.
 
     
This project is funded by Freidrich Neumann Stiftung, Global Dialogue and MYMEDIA/Niras. The materials that are published do not necessarily reflect the views of the funders.       funded
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